45 and Counting: Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, and James Garfield

In anticipation of the 2020 election, Voices will be highlighting a 2016 series published by Indian Country Today which provides an overview of how each president has played a role in policies that affect the legacy of Indigenous peoples after the advent of colonization. This series, written by journalist Alysa Landry, paints a picture of how we have arrived at the present moment under these leaders.

Read part 1, part 2, and part 3, and part 4. This week’s installment features Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, and James Garfield.

Andrew Johnson: Racist Determined to ‘Relocate’ Indians

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Ulysses S Grant: Mass Genocide Through ‘Permanent Peace’ Policy

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Rutherford B. Hayes: Introduced Allotment and Dreaded Boarding Schools

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James Garfield: Happy to See Natives Sink into “Extinction”

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Editor’s note:  A new installment of “45 and Counting” will be published every Tuesday from August 11th until Tuesday November 3. 

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4